1.Determine the most suitable incubation temperature
Temperature is the most important condition for embryo development. The optimum temperature for “variable temperature” or “constant temperature” in the “hatching conditions” is the average incubation temperature of all eggs. In fact, the optimal incubation temperature is affected by factors such as genetics (variety), eggshell quality, egg weight, egg storage time, and the number of hatched eggs in the incubator, in addition to differences due to different incubator types and temperature.
Therefore, it should be flexibly controlled according to the type of incubator and the ambient temperature of the hatching room (hatcher room). Especially for newly purchased incubators, you can master the performance of the incubator through several batches of trial incubation. For example, the heat preservation situation, the temperature difference of each point in the incubator, etc., combined with the local climate conditions and the environment of the hatching room (hatcher room) to determine the most suitable incubation temperature.
The incubation temperature recommended by foreign incubator manufacturers is a constant temperature incubation system, and the fixed temperature is generally low.
For example, the Chicken Ace Incubator of Holsa Company in the United States has a fixed temperature of 37.5°C for embryo age from 1 to 19 and a fixed temperature of 36.9°C for embryo age of 20-21; in the Belgian Peterson incubator, the incubation temperature is 37.6°C and 37.6°C respectively. 36.9°C.
The reasons for the different incubation temperatures are:
①In foreign countries, eggs are generally not photographed, and there is no such thing as lowering the temperature of the incubator and embryonic eggs due to the fact that the eggs are photographed.
②Adopt complete air-conditioning device to ensure the temperature of the incubation room is 24~26℃.
③The temperature difference in various parts of the incubator is small, and the heat preservation performance is more perfect.
④The batch incubation method is not used, and the temperature in the incubator will not be lowered due to the low temperature of the hatched eggs and newly hatched eggs.
⑤The capacity of the incubator is large, and the total heat produced by the embryos in the incubator is also large. Due to the influence of many of the above factors, although the fixed incubation temperature is lower than that in China, the total accumulated temperature of embryo development is not low.
2.Controlling the temperature in the incubation operation
Maintain a suitable and stable room temperature. Keep the temperature of the incubation room at 22~26℃ as much as possible to simplify the constant temperature of the most suitable incubation temperature. Ensure the accuracy of the incubation thermometer.
Use a standard thermometer to calibrate the incubation thermometer (including “door watch” thermometers and mercury conductive thermometers), and label the temperature difference.
Pay attention to prevent the thermometer from shifting, so as not to cause the embryo to develop above or below the optimum temperature and affect growth.
Determine the incubation temperature suitable for the local and incubator type. According to the local climate and hatching season, egg type, embryonic development, hatching status (with or without hatching peak, chick status) and hatching effect (hatching rate and healthy young rate), etc.
According to local and time conditions, determine the most suitable incubation temperature for the region and type of incubator. Especially for the first 3~4 batches of a new incubator or an incubator after an overhaul, it is necessary to calibrate the thermometer, measure the temperature difference in the incubator, and find the average temperature. Then adjust the incubation temperature of the temperature-controlled mercury conductivity meter to 37.8°C (or variable temperature incubation, or according to the temperature recommended by the incubator manufacturer), and try to incubate 1-2 batches.
In addition, when the room temperature is variable or changes too much and the hatching effect is unstable, the hatching temperature should be adjusted according to the embryo development and hatching effect.
3.Several issues that should be paid attention to when mastering the incubation temperature
First, the incubation can not mechanically set the “constant temperature” or “variable temperature” incubation to the temperature program or the incubation temperature recommended by the incubator manufacturer. As a result, sometimes the hatching effect is very good, but sometimes it is very poor, and it is impossible to achieve stable and high yield.
Second, the “three ups and three downs” of the tank incubation method give warming methods. It is believed that the first embryo age in incubation is the key. For example, the temperature of the chicken embryo should be 39.4℃, and the temperature should be lowered twice for the 3rd and 7th embryos. For example, the temperature should be 37.2℃, and the embryo should be 11-12. , The hatchable temperature should be lowered (36.9°C), and the embryo age of the chicken embryo should be 15-16, and the incubation temperature should be increased (for example, the temperature of the chicken embryo should be 39.7°C).
In the incubation period, this method of heating is adopted, some of which are determined by the specific incubator of the incubator, and some are determined by the incubation operation. But some lack scientific basis. The “three rises and three falls” heating method is not suitable for the mechanical electric incubation method, because the distance between the breeding eggs is obviously much larger than that of the tank incubation method, and there is a blower device and the temperature is uniform, so there is no “face egg” or “edge”. The temperature difference between “egg” and “heart egg”. Even traditional incubation methods such as “flat box” incubation and greenhouse rack incubation without blast equipment are no exception.
Third, adopt the batch incubation method. Pay attention to the placement of new and old embryo eggs in the incubator, which not only helps to adjust the temperature and improve the tidiness of embryo development, but also balances the gravity of the movable eggshell rack. When the hatcher hatches, the incubation temperature should be appropriately lowered according to the situation to facilitate the hatching.
Fourth, the large temperature difference in the incubator will seriously affect the incubation effect and also bring a lot of inconvenience to the incubation operation. If the temperature difference in the incubator is too large, find out the cause in time (including checking the wattage and layout of the electric heating tube), and solve it before incubation. If the temperature difference is large, it is best to adopt a “variable temperature” incubation system, and perform diagonal beveling during egg placement and shifting. If necessary, you can increase the number of panning to solve the problem of embryonic development to a certain extent.
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