Luo Qingbin, the associate professor of South China Agricultural University, gave a lecture entitled “Chicken Breeding Training (Ⅱ)” at the key technologies seminar on broiler breeder production held on the morning of August 24.
Professor Luo said that standard breeds pay attention to consistence of pedigree and typical appearance characteristics, and emphasize breed characteristics, especially feather color, crown shape, body shape, etc. The modern poultry breeding focuses on improving the level and consistency of population production performance, while adopt a more flexible attitude to the selection of breeding materials and the appearance characteristics of chickens. High-yielding chicken flocks with specific commercial codes, also called commercial strain or matching strain.
Outstanding production performance
It has a clear breeding goal, which is to comprehensively improve production performance, continuously improve the breeding value of pure line breeding populations, and make full use of heterosis through crossbreeding, so that make the production performance of commercial generation and breeding poultry can be continuously genetically improved. The main production performance far exceeds the level of any standard varieties.
Specific commercial naming
Due to the commercialization of breeding, the matching lines have been deviated from the original standard variety name, instead of naming after the breeding company’s proprietary trademark.
Characteristics of modern chicken breeding
Production objectives specialization. Meat chicken (broiler) and egg chicken (layer) have formed two independent production systems.Layer breeding and broiler breeding have also become basically independent fields. They have not only diverge in terms of breeding materials, breeding objectives, breeding procedures, etc., also there are great differences in nutritional requirements, feeding methods and management methods.
Hybridization. Hybridization before homozygous. Homozygous: accumulate favorable additive genes and non-additive genes, and eliminate unfavorable or harmful genes; Hybridization: through the hybridization between strains to make superiority of non-additive genes and the perfection and enrichment of additive genes.
Commercialize. The primary goal of breeding is to make profits, fierce competition: high input, high risk, high output; Producers can buy high-quality chicks or breeding eggs at low prices, through high efficient chicken production,to provide consumers with high-quality and low-cost eggs or chicken; Genetic resources are gradually narrowing.
High-intensity selection. The high fecundity of chickens: for hens, the seed is kept for 3 weeks ,and the seed retention rate was about 30%. Rooster, generally within 5%. The cost of raising chickens is relatively low, and a large observation group can be maintained as the basis for selection.
High-level breeding safeguards. Nutrition and forage, environmental control, disease purification and epidemic prevention. Provide high-level technical guarantee conditions for chicken breeding, is a guarantee factor to improve the accuracy of selection and accelerate the progress of genetics for chicken breeding.
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